Abu Nasr Mohammad Ibn al-Farakh al-Farabi was born in a small village Wasij, near Farab in Turkistan in 259 AH (870 AD). His parents originally Persian descent, but our ancestors had migrated to Turkistan. Known as al-Phrarabius in Europe, Farabi was the son of a general. He completed his earlier education in Farab and Bukhara, but, then, he went to Baghdad for higher studies, where he studied and worked for a long time, namely, from 901 CE. For 942 AD During this period he acquired mastery over several languages as well as various branches of science and technology. He lived through the reign of six Abbasid Caliphs. As a philosopher and scientist, he acquired great skills in various branches of learning and is reported to have experts in different languages.
Farabi went to many distant lands and studied for some time in Damascus and Egypt, but repeatedly returned to Baghdad, until he visited Saif al-Daula court in Halab (Allepo). He became one of the King's constant companions, and it was here at Halab that fame spread far and wide. During the early years he was a Qadi (Judge), but later on take up teaching as a profession. During his career, he has suffered great difficulties and at one time was the gardener. He died in Damascus in undergraduate AH/950 339 AD at the age of 80 years.
Farabi contributed enough with science, philosophy, logic, sociology, medicine, mathematics and music. His major contributions seem to be in philosophy, logic and sociology and, of course, stands out as an encyclopedist. As a philosopher, he may be classed as a Neoplatonist who tried to synthesize Platonism and Aristotelism with theology and he wrote such rich commentary on Aristotle's physics, meteorology, logic, etc., in addition to a large number of books on other subjects embody some original contribution, that he then known as the 'Second Teacher' (al-Mou'allim al-Thani) Aristotle who first. One of the important contributions of Farabi was to make the study of logic easier by dividing into two categories., Takhayyul (ideas) and Thubut (evidence).
In sociology he wrote several books out of which Ara Ahl al-Madina al-Fadila became famous. Books on psychology and metaphysics were largely based on his own work. He also wrote a book about music Kitab al-Musiqa title. He was a great expert in the art and science of music and created several musical instruments, besides contributing to the knowledge of musical notes. It has been reported that he could play his instrument so well to make people laugh or cry at will. In physics he demonstrated the existence of a vacancy.
Although many of his books have been lost, 117 are known, of which 43 are in logic, 11 on metaphysics, 7 on ethics, 7 on political science, 17 on music, medicine and sociology, while 11 is a comment. Some of the more famous books include the book Fusus al-Hikam, which remained a text book of philosophy for several centuries at various centers of learning and is still taught at several institutions in the East. Book lhsa al Kitab al-'Ulum discusses classification and fundamental principles of science in a unique and useful. The book Ara Ahl al-Madina al-Fadila 'The Model City' is a significant early contribution to sociology snd political science.
Farabi exercised great influence on science and knowledge for several centuries. Unfortunately, the book Theology of Aristotle, as was available to him at the time was regarded by him as genuine, although it later turned out to be the work of some Neoplatonic writer. Even so, he considers the Second Teacher in philosophy for centuries and his work, aimed at synthesis of philosophy and Sufism, paved the way for the work of Ibn Sina.