3. Effect of Asthma for Respiratory
Asthma causes a narrowing of the respiratory airways, as opposed to the normal movement of air in and out of the lungs. Asthma involves only the bronchial tubes and does not affect the air sacs or the lung tissue. The narrowing that occurs in asthma is caused by three major factors: inflammation (inflammation), broncho spasm (bronchospasm), and Hiperreaktivitas (hyperreactivity).
The first and most important factor that causes narrowing of the bronchial tubes is inflammation. Bronchial tubes become red, irritated, and swollen. Inflammation occurs in response to an allergen or a nuisance (irritant) and the result of the action of mediator-arbitrator chemicals (histamine, leukotrienes, and others). The inflamed tissues produce an excessive amount of thick mucus into the tubes. The mucus can clump together and form a "blockage" that can clog the airways smaller. Specialized cells and allergic inflammation (eosinophils and white blood cells), which accumulate in place, causing tissue damage. Damaged cells is shed into the airways, thus contribute to the narrowing.
The muscles around the bronchial tubes tighten during an asthma attack. Narrowing of the airway muscle is called bronchospasm. Bronchospasm caused saluraan air-duct narrows further. Mediator-arbitrator chemicals (Chemical mediators) and the nerves within the bronchial tubes cause the muscles to constrict.
In patients with asthma, the airways are narrowed and chronically inflamed become very sensitive (sensitive), or reactive, to triggers such as allergens, irritants, and infksi-infection. Exposure to these triggers may result in more inflammation and penyempitannya.
The combination of these three factors resulted in the disposal of difficulty breathing (breathing out, or exhaling). As a result, the air need to be removed by force to overcome the narrowing, thereby causing the typical sound of wheezing (wheezing sound). People with asthma also often coughing in an attempt to remove thick mucus blockage. Reduced air flow can result in less oxygen passing into the blood stream and, if severe, can be harmful carbon dioxide accumulates in the blood.