Louis XIV (French: Louis-Dieudonné, born 5 September 1638 - died 1 September 1715 at the age of 76 years) was the king of France and Navarre were crowned on May 14, 1643 at the age of five years. He has started since the death of the minister plenipotentiary main (French: Premier Ministre), Jules Cardinal Mazarin in 1661. Louis XIV also dubbed as the Sun King (French: Le Roi Soleil) or Louis the Great (French: Louis le Grand, or Le Grand Monarque). He ruled France for 72 years, the longest reign of the monarchy in France and Europe.
Louis XIV increase the power of France in Europe through three major wars: the Franco-Dutch (English: 'Franco-Dutch War'), the War of the Great Alliance (UK: War of the Grand Alliance), and the War of the Spanish Succession (UK: War of the Spanish Succession) between 1701 to 1714. Louis XIV successfully implement centralized absolutism and state. The phrase "L'État, c'est moi" ("The state is me") is often ascribed to him, although historians argue that this is not right and most likely blown by his political opponents as an embodiment of the stereotype of absolutism which he holds. A French author, Louis de Rouvroy, even claimed that he heard Louis XIV said before his death: "Je m'en vais, mais l'État demeurera toujours" ("I will go, but the country will still be there").
Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. At that time, his parents had been married for 23 years. Her mother had suffered four born between 1619 and 1631. Leading contemporaries thus regard it as a divine gift, and his birth, a miracle of God. He is often referred to as "Louis-Dieudonné" (Louis-God-given) and also bore the traditional title of French heirs: Dauphin. In 1643, seeing that death was at his door, Louis XIII decided to put his affairs in order. Defying custom, which would make them regent Anne, he decided that a district council will rule on behalf of his son. Lack of faith in the ability of politics is the main reason. He, however, made concessions appointed head of the Council.
Louis relationship with her mother was extraordinary affection for a while. Contemporaries and eyewitnesses claimed that the Queen will spend all her time with Louis. Both are very interested in food and theater, and it is very likely that Louis develop interests through close relationship with his mother. On May 14, 1643, with Louis XIII dead, Anne had her husband's will annulled by Parlement de Paris (a judicial body comprising mostly nobles and high priest), abolished the regency council, and became the sole regent. She then entrusted power to Cardinal Mazarin.
On Mazarin's death in 1661, Louis personal control of the reins of government. He was able to take advantage of the public yearning for law and order due to prolonged foreign war and domestic civil strife to further consolidate central political authority and reform at the expense of the feudal aristocracy. Praising his ability to choose and encourage men of talent, Chateaubriand noted that "it is the voice of genius of all kinds which sounds from the tomb of Louis".
Louis begin his personal reign with administrative and fiscal reforms. In 1661, treasury verged on bankruptcy. To remedy the situation, Louis chose Jean-Baptiste Colbert as controleur général des Finance 1665. However, Louis first had to eliminate Nicolas Fouquet, who des Surintendant Finance. Fouquet was charged with embezzlement. Parlement found him guilty and sentenced him to exile. However, Louis commuted sentence to life-imprisonment and also abolished Fouquet's post. Although Fouquet's financial indiscretions were not really very different from Mazarin before or Colbert after him, his ambition was worrying to Louis. He, for example, built a luxurious château at Vaux-le-Vicomte where he lavishly entertained Louis is relatively poor. He seemed to want to succeed Mazarin and Richelieu in assuming power and indiscreetly purchased and personalized fortified Belle Île. Actions sealed his doom.
Death of Philip IV of Spain in 1665 precipitated the War of Devolution. In 1660 Louis had married Philip IV's eldest daughter, Maria Theresa, as part of the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees. Marriage treaty specified that Maria Theresa was to abandon all claims to the territory
Spain for himself and all his descendants. However, Mazarin and lionne make rejection depends on the full payment of the dowry of 500,000 ECU Spain. dowry was never paid and would later play a part persuading Charles II of Spain to leave his empire to Philippe d'Anjou (later Philip V of Spain)-grandson of Louis and Maria Theresa.
In the early 1680s Louis had greatly added the French influence in the world. Domestically, he successfully increased the influence and authority of the Crown over the Church and aristocracy, thus consolidating absolute monarchy in France. Louis initially supported traditional Gallicanism, which limited papal authority in France, and the Assemblée du Clergé held in November 1681. Before its dissolution eight months later, the Assembly had accepted the Declaration of the Clergy of France, which increased royal authority at the expense of papal power. Without royal approval, bishops could not leave France and appeals could not be made to the Pope. Additionally, government officials could not be excommunicated for acts committed is doing its job. Although the King could not make ecclesiastical law, all papal regulations without royal consent invalid in France. Not surprisingly, the Pope rejected the Declaration.
After getting married in 1660, Louis and Maria Theresa of Spain had six children. However, only one child, the eldest, survived to adulthood: Louis, le Grand Dauphin, known as Monseigneur. Maria Theresa died in 1683, in which Louis said that she had caused him unease on no other occasion. Despite evidence of affection early in their marriage, Louis did not remain faithful to Maria Theresa for long. He took a series of mistresses, both official and unofficial, among them Mademoiselle de La Vallière, Madame de Montespan, and Mademoiselle de Fontanges. Through liaison, he produced many illegitimate children, most of whom he married to members of cadet branches of the royal family. Louis proved more faithful to his second wife, Madame de Maintenon. It is believed that they were married secretly on or around October 10, 1683 in Versailles. This marriage, though never announced or publicly discussed, is an open secret and lasted until his death
After 72 years on the throne, Louis died of gangrene at Versailles on 1 September 1715, four days before the anniversary of his 77th. Endure much pain in his final days, he finally "give up his soul without any effort, like a candle going out" while reciting the psalm Domine, ad adjuvandum FESTINA me (O Lord, make haste to help me). His body was buried in Saint-Denis Basilica, outside Paris. There lay peacefully for about 80 years at which time it was interrupted by a violent Revolutionary exhuming and destroying all remnants can be found in the Basilica.