Nicolas Steno (1 January 1638 - 25 November 1686 [NS: January 11, 1638 - December 5, 1686]) was a Catholic bishop and the Danish scientist who pioneered the science of anatomy and geology. In 1659, Steno decided not to accept the truth of a statement because the statement was written in the book and want to rely on the results of his own research. He is regarded as one of the founders of modern stratigraphy and modern geology with James Hutton. Pope John Paul II beatified Steno in 1988.
Stratigraphy is the study of the history, composition and relative age and distribution perlapisan soil and rock layers of interpretation to explain the history of the Earth. From the results of the comparison or correlation of different antarlapisan can be further study of the lithology (litho), contain fossils (biostratigraphy), and the relative or absolute age (kronostratigrafi). stratigraphic we learn to know the wide spread of rock layers.
Nicolas Steno (Danish: Niels Stensen; Dilatinkan become Nicolaus Steno) [notes 2] was born in Copenhagen on New Year's Day (Julian calendar), the son of a Lutheran goldsmith who worked regularly for King Christian IV of Denmark. Stensen grew up in a closed session during their childhood due to an unknown disease. In 1644, his father died and his mother married another goldsmith. Years 1654-1655, 240 school students died from the plague. Across the street lived Peder Schumacher (who would offer Steno professorship at Copenhagen in 1671).
After completing university education, Steno traveled across Europe; fact, he will continue to travel until the end. In the Netherlands, France, Italy, and Germany, he met with a number of leading physicists and scientists. The influence of their observations led him to use this ability to make important scientific discoveries. At a time when scientific questions answered by the old thinking, Steno confident enough to believe his own eyes, even when different observations with doctrines that developed at that time.
Top persuasion Thomas Bartholin, Steno first went to Rostock, then Amsterdam, where he studied anatomy at Gerard Blasius and refocus on the lymphatic system. A few months later, Steno moved to Leiden, and met with students in January Swammerdam, Frederik Ruysch, Reinier de Graaf, Franciscus de le Boe Sylvius, a famous professor, and Baruch Spinoza.  At that time, Descartes was published works about the way the brain works , and Steno did not think that his explanation of the origin of true tears. He went to Saumur and met with Melchisédech Thevenot and Ole Borch.
Steno went to Montpellier and met Martin Lister and William Croone who introduced Steno's work to the Royal Society. In Pisa Steno met Grand Duke of Tuscany, who supported arts and science. Steno was invited to live in the Palazzo Vecchio, in return he had to hold a cabinet of curiosities. Steno first went to Rome and met Alexander VII and Marcello Malpighi. As an anatomical in the hospital Steno focused on the muscular system and the nature of muscle contraction. He is also a member of the Accademia del Cimento in Florence. As Vincenzio Viviani, Steno used geometry to show that a contracting muscle muscles change shape without changing volume.
Steno, in his prodromus Dissertationis in 1669, establishes three principles of the science of stratigraphy: the law of superposition: "... at a time when any stratum formed, all material on it is a liquid, and, therefore, when the lowermost stratum formed , the upper strata has not been established "; principle of original horizontality:" Strata perpendicular to the horizon or inclined to the horizon once parallel to the horizon "; principle of lateral continuity:" Material forming any stratum interconnected on the surface until there is another solid object in its way ", and the principle of transverse discontinuities:" If a body or discontinuity cut through a stratum, then the agency must have been formed after the stratum. " These principles are applied and extended in 1772 by Jean-Baptiste L. Rome de l'Isle. Steno-known theory that the fossil record is the chronology of the various living creatures in different eras was a sine qua non for Darwin's theory of natural selection.
Having died in 1686, Steno was appointed diocesan saint in Hildesheim. Steno piety and virtue have been assessed by the decision entitled undergoing canonization. The process of canonization began in Osnabruck in 1938. In 1953, his body was exhumed, and reburied Capella Stenoniana, but without the missing skull. The Italian government donated a Christian sarcophagus of the 4th century found in the river Arno. In 1988, he was declared "Beatus" - the first phase to be a saint - by Pope John Paul II. He now called Blessed Nicolas Steno by Catholics. His feast day on December 5.