Elaboration Theory Principles

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According to Merrill and Twitchel Yatim was quoted as saying by Riyanto, stated there are eight principles in learning by using the theory of elaboration. These principles are: [1]

1. Initial synthesis principle: epitome presentation at the beginning of learning (what should be produced in the learning to be effective, efficient and easy to implement). Or in other words, that the contents of the frame shows the main parts of the field of study and the relationships that should be presented in the first phase of learning.

2. Gradual elaboration principle: gradualdari arrangement established order. Elaboration of the second phase will elaborate on the parts covered by the first phase of elaboration. Thus, the learning sequence moving from the general to the detailed sequence and from simple to complex.

3. Introductory familiarization principle, adjustable settings with the things that have been known to the students. At this stage of teaching will try to find teaching materials or examples of cases that have been recognized by the students in order to facilitate students in understanding the concepts that will be presented at subsequent meetings.

4. "Most important first" principle: the arrangement of things that are considered most important, placed at the beginning of the meeting. This is taking into consideration that these teaching materials can contribute to the student in understanding the whole picture. This is done to increase motivation.

5. Optimal size principle: facts, concepts and procedures are known or can be known easily by students, in which it is synthesized through a learning process. In the learning process, these facts can be displayed by giving examples of behaviors that occur in the classroom or by presenting the case of clipping the values ​​that occur in adolescence. From this case, the student is expected to reveal anything that has been understood through a process of discussion in the classroom.

6. Periodic synthesis principle: teaching materials synthesized and shown at the end of each lesson. In this section, counselors will provide an explanation of the relationship between the teaching materials teaching materials to the next, so that students have a preliminary description of the instructional materials to be delivered by the counselor.

7. Periodic summary principle: the appointment of a summary at the end of each end of the instructional materials. At this time the teacher will give a summary of the teaching materials that have been provided to students. Thus, if divided into several sections, the teacher gives a summary. Summary endeavored to associate with subsequent chapters.

8. Type of synthesizer principle: the synthesis of teaching materials adapted to existing conditions, such as the conceptual structure for the content of conceptual, theoretical structure for theoretical content, and procedural structures for procedural content.

[1] Yatim Riyanto, Education of New Paradigm, (Jakarta: Kencana, 2009), p. 22-23.

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