Before discussing about Clarification approach, let us try to feel what the meaning and clarify the approach itself. Meaningful approach: "the business of research activities in order to make contact with people who studied or methods to achieve pegertian about the research problem." Clarification rarefaction meaningful, explanation, and return to the truth. approach to education as a means of addressing the perceived value or point of view is the basis or the source in reverse learning takes place in a decent value, correct and in accordance with the objectives of national education. "
Starting point of clarification is the value of the view that young people today are living in a new world that is complicated by different perspectives ambiguous values reflected in the lives of religious, political, moral code or ideology-ideology that developed in the community, supported by a heterogeneous material and individuals associated with the value itself.
Values clarification approach (values clarification approach) was first used by Raths, Harmin and Simon with his book Teaching Values and they stated the three processes where these values can be found through, Choosing (opt). Prizing (judge) and Acting (applications) in 1966. diperbahaui then again in 1975 to: Thinking (thinking), Feelingf (Feelings), Choosing (opt), Communicating (communication), acting (applications).
Values clarification approach (values clarification approach) give emphasis on efforts to help learners to assess their own feelings and actions, to improve them about their own values. This approach is considered effective for education in a democracy.
Values clarification approach (values clarification approach) by Nurul Zuriah ie: this approach aims to raise awareness and develop the ability of learners to identify their own values and the values of others. In addition, this approach also helps peseta learners to be able to communicate honestly and openly about their own values to others and assist learners in using rational thinking and emotional skills in assessing the feelings, values and behavior of their own.
Formulation introduces value clarification megenai view our development decisions in relation to the social context. Similarly James Shaver and William Stomg states: "The values clarification approach centers on the valuing process. It cocerned with the technique for stimulating students to think about and clarify their own values "(values clarification approach focuses on aspects of assessment is supported by a variety of techniques to stimulate students and think about the value and find the values that exist daam themselves."
The purpose of education according to the value of this approach is threefold: First, it helps to sensitize and educate peseta identify Meeka own values and the values of others; Second, help learners to be able to communicate openly and honestly with other oang, associated with its values sendii ; Third, Formatting learners so that they can use together behave rational abilities, and behavior patterns of their own. "
With the values clarification approach students are taught about ethical relativsm and how humans develop each their own value, challenged teachers are able to make a conflict of values (values conflict). designed in such a way-so that learners are able to discover their own values. As the approach is more popular then the value clarification approach easier to understand, it is because this approach in presenting the facts and reasons justifying a value that is built by someone, it is using the resources of relevant books, filmstrips, exercises and workshops aimed at facilitate their understanding of the value. "
Zubaedi in his state that values clarification approach could use dialogue, writing, discussion in small and large groups, portfolio, and others who place more emphasis on the true value (true value).
In aflikasinya there are seven steps to clarify the principles of value, namely: (1) the value must be freely chosen, (2) the value chosen should alternatives, (3) select a value after considering the effects of plihan, (4) value to be realized before the public, (5) the value is a rule of life, (6) the value should always be maintained, and (7) dare to express the value in front of others. "
The seventh step is clarification reflects the integrity of the educational dimension of productive and efficient. The first step to third including cognitive dimensions (emphasize reasoning skills). Fourth and fifth dimensions reflect effective (appreciation and pride), the sixth step da seventh reflect psychomotor dimensions (concrete actions that continue menrus and patterned).
This approach emphasizes the value actually owned by someone. For adherents of this approach, value is subjective, determined by a person based on their different backgrounds from his own experience, is not determined by external factors, such as religion, society and so on. Therefore, this approach pengaut content value is not too important. It is very important in the education program was begun to develop skills in the process of assessing students. Consistent with that view, as described by Elias (1989), that the adherents of this approach, the teacher is not teaching values, melainka as a role model and driving. The role of the teacher is to encourage students to petanyaan-relevant questions to develop students' skills in the process of judging.
There are three clarification process according to this approach. In the third process, there are seven sub-processes as follows: First: choose: (1) with free, (2) from the alternative (3) Having entered into the consideration of the various consequences. Second: respect: (1) a happy or happy with his choice, (2) want to admit it in public choice, Third: act: (1) to do something of their choice, (2) is repeated as a pattern of behavior in life.
To develop students' skills in assessing the process, has formulated guidelines as well as four important key as follows: (1) the foundation of the attention given to life. The point is trying to direct attention to the various aspects of the pedestal of their own lives, so they can identify the things that they value, (2) acceptance in accordance with what it is. That is, when we pay attention to the clarification of values, we need to accept others without judgment oang position, in accordance with what it is, (3) stimulus for further action. This means that we need to do more as a reflection of values, rather than menerma, (4) development of individual skills. That is the approach to develop the skills karifikasi inibukan only value, but also get guidance to think and to do further.
The disadvantage of the approach as well as showing bias cognitive development because Western culture. In this approach, the criteria bena one very relative, because it is concerned with the value of the individual. As stated by Banks, educational value according to this approach does not have a purpose related to the value tetentu. Because, for the adherents of the approach in, specify a number nlai for students is unnatural and unethical.
The education system under this approach is no longer functioning form of moral and character peseta learners, learners instead didorog to grow and expand freedom in introducing that there is no right and wrong answers in life for conscience claimed was due to students not able to distinguish good and true because everyone has their own opinion about the good and the true. Besides, because this is very humanistic approach will certainly undermine religious authority and the authority of the parents of children who will then be able to leave demokralisasi upon a nation. In the study covered eight grades based educational approach to the literature in the fields of psychology, sociology, philosophy, and education related to the value. However, based on the results of further discussion with the educators and practical reasons in its use in the field, these approaches have been summarized into five (Superka, et.al.1976). Five approaches are: (1) investment approach value ( inculcationapproach), (2) The cognitive moral development (cognitive moral development approach), (3) approach to value analysis (values pproach analysis), (4) the value clarification approach (values clarificatio approach), and (5) learning approach did (action learning approach).
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