Stimulation theorists demonstrated that psychological needs (hunger serti) orgasm to motivate certain behaviors to involve (such as looking for food), cognitive theorists menunjukkah that cognitive processes is an important mediator in motivation. Motivation is also a function of one's cognitive task at hand, about the consequences of task completion and kemempuan someone to do the job.
Curiosity in children and young adults are the same, it is a motivator for learning. One form of curiosity (perceptual arousal), was initially stimulated by novel, complex, or things that are not common in the environment. As long as people adapt quickly to events that are surprising, curiosity must be supported in order to keep motivated thing. One way to keep attention on the perceptual level is to perform a variety of instructional approaches during learning time in class or training session (Keller, 1983, 1987) so that the class is not monotonous and boring. Another thing to continue the fantasy that involves curiosity usefulness in the study will provide a meaningful context for students making it easier to expand the imagination. Deeper level of curiosity can be enabled by creating a situation that problems can only be solved by re-search behavioral science.
- Learning Task Relevance
Effort to make learning relevant to students is a complicated thing. What makes the subject interesting for students? How to make students see the future relevant to anything, while the future is still far dedpan? How can teachers help students both to construct or acquire a relevant target in a subject?. How can design instruction to fit the needs of students for achievement atauy kebutuan for applications? Note the following points:
1. setting goals
Targets set by the active is an important source of motivation (Bandura, 1977). When people set goals, they established a standard aksternal where they will evaluate the level performannya internally. Furthermore, no matter how difficult target to be achieved. Locke, Shans, Saari and Lathan (1981) identified a number of specific objectives that are important in the process of setting goals. For example setting explicit goals ("I will be able to connect a circuit to light the lamp") is better than setting general goals ("I will learn about electricity") to motivate persistence behavior.
Proxima (the target can be achieved in the near future) is close to the target seklarang period and can be achieved quickly, such as "I will complete ten additional math problem of the week". While distance goals (goals that can be achieved in a long time) is the target criteria set far in the future, such as "I'll do an extra hundred math problems this semester".
2. motive matching
Another aspect of student cognitive adalahtingkatan learning tasks that meet the special needs of students or together with the values of students. Maslow (1970) proposed a hierarchy of human needs from the lower levels associated with survival and security to the highest level, the aesthetic appreciation and self-actualization. Keller (1987) states that the instructor must be sensitive to the individual needs and teraplikasinya needs to achieve the stretcher.
According to Bandura, self-efficacy involves the belief that one can generate behavior, free / not depend on whether or not someone can actually. He suggests such concepts as a mediator performen and achievement. The theory is as follows;
4. Influences on Efficacy Expectations
Bandura suggested four possible sources makes people can obtain information to influence the efficacy of himself, namely;
- Completion performen. Referring to the previous student success in a task, for example, the Bill is a student in the class, to get the value of A given the opportunity to mngikuti Quist three times. Having Bill join Quist and it turns out he got a B. then the professor asked him if he would fix the value untukmendapatkan value of A. the Bill replied that he was not the type of the value. Then after Bill check sheets, which have been examined by the professor, apparently there was a mistake made by his teachers examination. After rechecking, Bill get an A. performen conclusion that is far more important than what is expected of the Bill.
- Experience as if possessed sendiri.atau observation of a student to euartu dalamtugas models for success. Many people are not sure of the effort or the work he does himself. So it makes it fail before doing so. On another occasion someone like this can change her expectations after a time he followed sebua konferensi.rupanya after he did something where he had to compete with the more powerful, he's even better than the terebut.lantas she said "oh my god ... I can do at least as good as him.
- Verbal Persuasion, referring to others who persuade students that he was able to succeed at certain tasks, such as "come on ... you can".
- Unity psychological, "feeling brave" about the possibility of an individual menyakinkannya successful or unsuccessful.